Bibliography to the speech given at the

Washington State House Education Committee

The links below are no longer working.  The best bet is to go to and put in the search terms, i.e. "Easing the Teasing" or "School Bullying" etc.

Easing the Teasing: How Parents Can Help Their Children. ERIC Digest. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Children who are teased on a school bus, in class, or during recess often don't want to go to school.  Unfortunately, teasing can occur anywhere, and it is difficult to prevent--despite the best efforts of parents, teachers, and school administrators to create a more cooperative atmosphere (Ross, 1996)...

*Bullying in Schools. ERIC Digest. ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Bullying in schools is a worldwide problem that can have negative consequences for the general school climate and for the right of students to learn in a safe environment without fear. Bullying can also have negative lifelong consequences--both for students who bully and for their victims...

School Violence Prevention. ERIC Digest, Number 94. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Eighty-nine percent of respondents in 700 cities and towns surveyed by the National League of Cities in 1994 said that school violence is a problem in their community (Randy Arndt 1994). Researchers have identified several major causes for the increase in violent behavior, causes so entangled that attempting to address one while ignoring another is to risk failure

Schools Attack the Roots of Violence. ERIC Digest, Number 63. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - School crime and violence have been major concerns of educators and the public since the early seventies. According to Moles (1991), some types of school crime, such as theft and drug use, have remained level or diminished in recent years. However, some evidence suggests violent crime may be increasing...

Gaining Control of Violence in the Schools: A View from the Field. ERIC Digest No. 100. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Too often in urban schools across the country, both students and teachers feel unsafe. Many have been threatened physically or verbally, or have directly experienced violence. Beyond generating fears for everyone's safety, violence in schools is diverting energy and resources from instruction...
TREATING THE AFTERMATH OF VIOLENCE - Students who have witnessed or been involved in violence suffer from post traumatic stress, which can include anxiety, fear, emotional constriction, attention difficulties, and sleeplessness. Thus, just as victims need counseling when they leave the emergency room, students who were bystanders to the violence need carefully led discussions to help them with their confusion, grief, and anger...

Assessing Potentially Violent Students. ERIC Digest. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC
Although student school shootings of students have recently gained significant national attention, (e.g., homicide, rape, aggravated assault, etc.) more routine forms of student violence  continue to plague our nation's schools and streets. These less sensational but equally harmful violent behaviors warrant appropriate response...   ...any student making violent threats towards others should be required to complete a psychological assessment process and parental conferencing. Although these steps will not prevent all forms of violence from students threatening violent behaviors, they are a means to provide a reasonable safety standard and undoubtedly will help insulate the counselor and school system from potential liability.

The Fundamentals of School Security. ERIC Digest Number 132. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - School security is a front-burner issue for educators, students, and citizens reeling from the shock of a series of mass school shootings...HOW CAN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS BE CHANGED TO MAKE SCHOOLS SAFER? - Identifying potentially violent students and intervening before serious problems erupt has become a high priority...

School Security. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 46. - ( -CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - A twelve-year-old repeatedly teased by other students brings a gun to school, shoots another child, and kills himself. A knife-wielding intruder mugs a teacher in the men's room. Flying bullets from a neighboring housing project force the evacuation of a high school's playing field. Events such as these disrupt the learning environment schools try to provide, filling students and staff with fear and endangering their lives. Fortunately, a variety of preventive and coping strategies can help beleaguered teachers and administrators both to protect the school facilities and to safeguard the people who use them. - HOW CAN A DISTRICT ASSESS ITS SCHOOL SECURITY NEEDS? As Peter Blauvelt (1987) states, "A school administrator cannot control unwanted and unacceptable behavior without timely and accurate security data." He details a procedure for data recording, including a sample "Incident Profile Form" on which the exact nature, time and place of the offense, descriptions of the offender and victim, and actions taken by the school are recorded...

School Discipline. ERIC Digest, Number 78. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - School discipline has two main goals: (1) ensure the safety of staff and students, and (2) create an environment conducive to learning. Serious student misconduct involving violent or criminal behavior defeats these goals and often makes headlines in the process. However, the commonest discipline problems involve noncriminal student behavior (Moles 1989).
HOW IMPORTANT IS ADMINISTRATIVE LEADERSHIP? - The principal plays an important leadership role in establishing school discipline, both by effective administration and by personal example. Principals of well-disciplined students are usually highly visible models. They engage in what Duke describes as "management by walking around," greeting students and teachers and informally monitoring possible problem areas. Effective principals are liked and respected, rather than feared, and communicate caring for students as well as willingness to impose punishment if necessary (NAESP 1983)...

Coping with Fears and Stress. ERIC Digest. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Children's fears can have a self-preserving and motivational quality or have an inhibiting or debilitating effect. According to Morris & Kratochwill (1983) 4% to 8% of all children in the United States will receive clinical treatment for fear-related disorders. The numbers of untreated population often run as much as two times those of the treated population. In a recent survey of teachers in American international schools, the vast majority of teachers believed that children were adversely affected by fears and that as many as 50% were not functioning effectively at some time because of fear-related concerns (Robinson, Rotter, Fey, & Robinson, 1991)...

An Overview of Strategies To Reduce School Violence. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 115. - ( - CONTACT ACCESS ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Violence among youth, especially in schools, is one of American society's most pressing concerns. It is also a source of controversy. While no recent nationwide study of the real extent of youth violence is available, small-scale and regional studies indicate that youth violence is increasing, at least slightly. In addition, youth, like adults, are now more frequently using guns instead of fists to settle disputes...

Sexual Harassment Interventions. ERIC Digest No. 206. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Sexual harassment affects people of all ages and races and of both sexes. Although it has been outlawed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and prohibited under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, many companies and schools have yet to develop adequate policies and procedures for addressing sexual harassment.

The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools. ERIC Digest. - ( - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - Counselors in middle schools work with young people whose lives are in constant flux. Early adolescence is a time of physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development, during which young people confront the question, "Who am I?" The young adolescent's search for identity involves many challenges (Gerler, Hogan, & O'Rourke, 1990)...   THE CHALLENGES OF STRESSFUL LIVES - Students in middle schools frequently complain about the stress they experience in their everyday lives (Elkind, 1990). Typical adolescent complaints include "Everyone is watching for me to make mistakes" and "I never have any time for myself." Adults sometimes have a tendency to discount what adolescents say, believing that most of the stress youngsters experience will pass as maturation occurs. This lack of empathy on the part of adults may leave adolescents feeling misunderstood and alienated.

Middle school counselors must implement programs that help young adolescents deal with many stressful circumstances. Desensitization programs that help in overcoming undue fears and relaxation programs that attempt to relieve stress may help young adolescents develop confidence and hope for the future... - CONTACT ERIC 1-800-LET-ERIC - The teenage suicide rate has risen to crisis proportions over the past 20 years. Between 1957 and 1975, the rate of suicide among 15 to 24 year olds tripled; IDENTIFICATION: SUICIDE AS PART OF A PROCESS - Contrary to popular belief, suicide is ...the result of a three-step process: a previous history of problems is compounded by problems associated with adolescence; finally, a precipitating event, often a death or the end of a meaningful relationship, triggers the suicide (McBrien, 1983). Long-term problems can include: losing a parent or close relative at a young age; coming from a family of divorce, or one in which there is much discord; being a victim of domestic violence or child abuse;...  ...or School Bullying and Harassment...

For research, please visit, "Bullying Prevention - Links that Support" at
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HEAR JARED'S VOICE - PLAY - From an interview with Pasco School District investigators concerning the assault.  This is a recording of a recording and it isn't real clear, but worth the download effort.  Jared had a real mellow voice.     Note: If you have a slow load wav, wait for it to load entirely and then play again from the start.   5 minutes long.



A Congressman speaks out about bullying, and in support of an anti bullying law in Arizona
"The school ground bully has been around for too long.  His entire success at bullying is predicated upon arrogant disregard to simple decency, and a willingness to brutalize an innocent victim simply because the bully is bigger and stronger and others are afraid to intervene.  It is insidious and calls for society and government to intervene decisively.  This bullying bill is a start.  As you deliberate this bill please reflect on the fact that Government's primary purpose for existence is for the protection of its innocent citizens.   ...Then remember your bully as a child."        Congressman Trent Franks (R) Arizona


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Stop the Bullying - for Educators

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